In the beginning, IMV looked into intrauterine insemination as a way to compensate for the loss of viable sperm cells after freezing and thawing semen. Research proved this was possible and the CryoGoldenPig was developed as a commercial product in 1992.
Around the time, this same concept was being researched for non-surgical transfer of embryos. Later, our research focused on trying to improve results obtained from fresh semen. Results suggested an increase in production if cells were deposited directly into uterus.
More extensive trials proved that while you could not improve reproductive parameters on “normal” concentration, you could maintain them after significantly lowering the number of sperm cells per dose. This research also showed that doses of 2 billion sperm cells could produce as good results as doses with 3 billion using “conventional” or intracervical insemination.
In the 90s, the North American swine industry would not have considered going below 5 billion sperm cells per dose. Today we have a better understanding of the estrous cycle, access to good quality extenders, we know and make use of sperm evaluation and counting techniques that are more objective and we have “sperm friendly” equipment and consumable items. In some boar studs, they are now producing with less 1 billion of cells per dose!
There are studies comparing the use of surgical and non-surgical intrauterine deposition of sperm cells. The concentrations used ranged from 1 million (directly into each oviduct) to 1 billion sperm cells (non-surgically into the body of uterus).
Today, some countries have a huge part of PCAI. In the US, PCAI is used on 40 to 50% of the 6 million sows. In France, Spain and Brazil, 70% of sows are inseminated with deep catheters. People are now looking at how to implement this technic on gilts. 5% of gilts in the US are now inseminated with the PCAI method.
Low concentration intra-uterine insemination in swine
|Polge (1970)||10 x 106||0.5 ml||Surgically into the oviduct,|
frozen thawed sperm
|Schoenker & Didion (1995)||10 x 106||0.5 ml||Same as above,|
under farm conditions
|Johnson (1991)||200,000||N/a||Surgically, into oviduct,|
|Krüger & Rath (1999, 2000)||106,5 x 106, 107, 108, 109 (per horn)||0.5 ml||Surgically, into each uterine horn, stimulated gilts|
|Krüger & Rath (1999, 2000)||107, 108, 109(per horn)||0.5 ml||Surgically, into each horn,|
|Vásquez, et al (1999)||20 x 107||5 ml||Super ovulated sows,|
unilateral deep horn insemination
|Vásquez, et al (2001)||150 x 106||5 + 2.5 ml||Unilateral deep intrauterine|
|Watson & Behan (2001)||3 x 109, 2x 109, 1 x 109||80 ml||Non-surgically, DeepGoldenpigTM, into body of uterus,|
3240 sows in trial.